F O R U M - The University of Edinburgh Postgraduate Journal of Culture and the Arts
Issue 8 - T e c h n o l o g i e s
The concept of technology is manifold and encompasses many definitions. Technology may be
defined broadly, as by Melvin Kranzberg in 1959, as "how things are commonly done or made"
and "what things are done and made." Ron Westrum in Technologies and Society: The Shaping of
People and Things (1991) provides a more precise and also threefold definition, stating that
technology consists of "those material objects, techniques, and knowledge that allow human
beings to transform and control the inanimate world."