The history of the novel is also, it would appear, a history of secularization. For Ian Watt, Michael McKeon, Franco Moretti, and many others, the novel is a product of what Max Weber called rationalization. More recently, in Martha Nussbaum's Love's Knowledge and Lynn Hunt's Inventing Human Rights, the novel is seen as participating in the production of secular modernity—through the elaboration of modernity's ethics and the encouragement of empathy across socio-economic boundaries, respectively. How then should we characterize the relationship between the novel and secularization? Is the novel an effect or a cause of secularization? Or, if the relationship between the two is more dialectical, how should that dialectic be described?