The history of mankind/humanities is marked by intercultural contacts among different societies, be it in development contexts such as trades, business, religious encounters, diplomatic and academic exchanges, or be in conflictual contexts such as war incarceration, human trafficking, forced migration, and annexations.
Propelled by globalization, the first decades of the 21st century witness a growing trend of old (i.e. face to face interactions) and new (i.e. digital/online interactions) forms of intercultural contacts in both development and conflictual contexts. Intercultural contacts consist of an interplay of interlocutors’ interactions, languages, communications, behaviours, and emotions that are dynamic, non-linear, and emergent.