It is hard to exaggerate the novelty of English Treasurer Richard fitz Nigel’s Dialogue of the Exchequer, completed c. 1179. Often considered Europe’s first administrative manual, it required the invention of a new genre, the systematic thinking-through of collected bureaucratic knowledge and its categorization and organization. Successive generations of historians have mined this text for data about England’s taxation office and common law, but it has more to offer researchers of bureaucratic and institutional culture, medieval identity formation, and intertextuality.
Close to 100 years ago, T. F. Tout was able to claim in his magisterial six-volume study of England’s letter-writing offices that the administrative history of thirteenth- and fourteenth-century England was "largely unwritten.” Within the last ten or twenty years, however, historians have undertaken socio-cultural studies of medieval bureaucracy and its personnel, moving from prosopographical and biographical sketches to nuanced examinations of the experience and challenges of bureaucratic employment throughout Europe.
American Romanticism: Conflicts, Resistance, and Reform (Panel)
In typical college classrooms, instructors face large groups of highly diverse students. In fact, students are often so diverse that even their diversity is diverse. Differences in educational background, family support systems, English-language proficiency, abilities and disabilities, and more, can strongly impact students' capacities to fulfill course expectations.
But while "differentiation" has become a pervasive buzzword within K-12 pedagogy, in higher education it remains unclear exactly how, where, when, and whose responsibility it is to engage and support students with various learning challenges.
Although the term “documentary” with respect to film was not coined until 1926 by John Grierson, precursors to this genre have existed for ethnographic purposes from the late-nineteenth century. Defined by Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary as “a presentation (such as a film or novel) expressing or dealing with factual events: a documentary presentation,” this cinematographic form, even from its very inception, has been grappling with the hybrid version, docu-fiction. This latter genre, a combination of seemingly mutually exclusive elements—objective factual and subjective fictional—seems to undermine the very essence of what constitutes documentary cinema.