The Medieval “Freak Show”: Putting the Monstrous on Display in the Middle Ages

deadline for submissions: 
May 30, 2016
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SEMA 2016 Proposal


Call for Papers for SEMA 2016

The Medieval “Freak Show”: Putting the Monstrous on Display in the Middle Ages


People and creatures perceived as monstrous or wondrous are often put on display for profit or exploitation. At times, this exhibitionism presents itself as “education.” What has popularly been called the “freak show” achieved its height via the emergence of working class entertainments that transformed visual cultures in the nineteenth century, as exemplified in P.T. Barnum’s circus and its sideshows, but also including innovations such as the stereoscope and the panorama, which prepared the rise of cinema and, later, television.

Yet these technologies only amplify traditions of the public display of human oddity and wonder stretching into the Middle Ages (and beyond): striking examples of extraordinary bodies and physical powers can be found in medieval saints’ lives, such as that of Christina Mirabilis, who could perch in trees like a bird, roll herself into a ball, and move at superhuman speed. She, or her hagiographer, puts her “wondrous” body on display to instruct and astound, yet may be aware of the sensationalism of her narrative. Likewise, medieval epic offers numerous examples of wondrous bodies, and exempla teem with people possessed by devils with the power of prognostication. These episodes are meant to instruct, but also to titillate, horrify, and shock their audiences. Similar paradigms mark displays on modern television, particularly in reality shows that walk (and frequently cross) the line between empowerment or awareness raising and exploitation.

We can thus understand then that the notion of “freak” in “freak show” requires display: fantastic physical attributes must be visible by way of exhibition, while other powers, such as prognostication, must be made worthy of display by way of spectacular shows and dramatic presentation. The “educational” aspect of the “freak show” is the most controversial and poignant aspect of the practice. The “freak” is understood to benefit the public through certain services or through instruction, although the content, quality, and validity of this instruction varies widely depending on a given culture.

The papers of the panel will discuss medieval instances of the “freak show,” along with the complex questions of power and otherness these engender. We are especially interested in papers that address the presentational and supposedly “educational” aspects of the “freak show,” while we welcome papers addressing any aspect of the phenomenon. Might we understand literary and artistic examples as forms of the “freak show”? What are the forms of display that characterize medieval cultures? How do medieval forms of display exhibit – or question – the typical goals of profit, exploitation, and edification, but also power and place?

Submit proposals by May 30, 2016 to Thea Tomaini and Stefanie Goyette at and .